Computer Immune Systems
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The Big Picture

  • "Technological Networks and the Spread of Computer Viruses," J. Balthrop, S. Forrest, M. E. J. Newman, M. M. Williamson, Science, Vol 304, Issue 5670, 527-529 , 23 April 2004.
  • Computation in the Wild. S. Forrest, J. Balthrop, M. Glickman, and D. Ackley. In The Internet as a Large-Scale Complex System, edited by K. Park and W. Willins: Oxford University Press (in press). PDF

  • Information Immune Systems. D. L. Chao and S. Forrest. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems (ICARIS), pp. 132-140 (2002). PDF

  • Immunology as information processing. S. Forrest and S.A. Hofmeyr. In Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems, edited by L.A. Segel and I. Cohen. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. New York: Oxford University Press. (2001). Postscript

  • Principles of a Computer Immune System. A. Somayaji, S. Hofmeyr, and S. Forrest. 1997 New Security Paradigms Workshop, pp. 75-82, ACM (1998). Abstract PDF Postscript

  • Computer Immunology. S. Forrest, S. Hofmeyr, and A. Somayaji. Communications of the ACM Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 88-96 (1997).

Automated Response

  • Operating System Stability and Security through Process Homeostasis. Anil B. Somayaji. Ph.D. thesis, University of New Mexico, July 2002. PDF

  • Automated Response Using System-Call Delays. A. Somayaji and S. Forrest. In Proceedings of the 9th USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, CO, August 14-17, 2000. pdf Postscript

Security Through Diversity

  • Building diverse computer systems. S. Forrest, A. Somayaji, and D. Ackley. In Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 67-72 (1997). Abstract PDF Postscript

Epidemiology

  • Email Networks and the Spread of Computer Viruses. M. E. J. Newman, S. Forrest, and J. Balthrop. Physical Review E 66, 035101. (2002) Postscript PDF

Intrusion Detection

  • Anomaly Intrusion Detection in Dynamic Execution Environments. H. Inoue and S. Forrest. New Security Paradigms Workshop. (in press)
  • Coverage and Generalization in an Artificial Immune System. J. Balthrop, F. Esponda, S. Forrest, and M. Glickman. In W. B. Langdon, E. Cantu-Paz, K. Mathias, R. Roy, D. Davis, R. Poli, K. Balakrishnan, V. Hanovar, G. Rudolph, J. Wegener, L. Bull, M. A. Potter, A. C. Schultz, J. F. Miller, E. Burke, and N. Jonaska, editors. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2002), Morgan Kaufmann. New York, pp. 3-10 (2002). Postscript PDF
  • Revisiting LISYS: Parameters and Normal Behavior. J. Balthrop, S. Forrest, and M. Glickman. Proceedings of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation. (2002).

  • Architecture for an Artificial Immune System. S. Hofmeyr and S. Forrest. Evolutionary Computation Journal Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 443-473. (2000). Abstract Postscript

  • Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System. S. A. Hofmeyr and S. Forrest. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), Morgan-Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, pp. 1289-1296 (1999). Postscript PDF

  • An Immunological Model of Distributed Detection and its Application to Network Security. Steven A. Hofmeyr. Ph.D. thesis, University of New Mexico, May 1999.

  • A sense of self for Unix processes. S. Forrest, S. A. Hofmeyr, A. Somayaji, and T. A. Longstaff. In Proceedings of 1996 IEEE Symposium on Computer Security and Privacy, pp. 120-128 (1996). Abstract PDF Postscript

  • Intrusion Detection using Sequences of System Calls. S. A. Hofmeyr, A. Somayaji, and S. Forrest.
    Note: this is the pre-submission version. A somewhat later version of this paper was published in the Journal of Computer Security Vol. 6, pp 151-180 (1998). Abstract PDF Postscript

  • An Immunological Approach to Distributed Network Intrusion Detection. S. A. Hofmeyr, S. Forrest, and P. D'haeseleer. Paper presented at RAID'98 - First International Workshop on the Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium (1998). Abstract only

  • Detecting Intrusions Using System Calls: Alternative Data Models. C. Warrender, S. Forrest, and B. Pearlmutter. 1999 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. pp. 133-145 (1999). Abstract PDF Postscript

Distributed Change Detection

  • A Formalframework for positive and negative detection. F. Esponda, S. Forrest, and P. Helman. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. 34:1 pp. 357-373 (2004). Postscript PDF

  • Self-nonself discrimination in a computer. S. Forrest, A.S. Perelson, L. Allen, and R. Cherukuri. In Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 202-212 (1994). Abstract PDF Postscript

  • An immunological approach to change detection: algorithms, analysis, and implications. P. D'haeseleer, S. Forrest, and P. Helman. In Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Computer Security and Privacy (1996). Abstract PDF Postscript

  • An immunological approach to change detection: Theoretical Results. P. D'haeseleer. In 9th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop, pp. 110-119. (1996). Abstract PDF Postscript

Computer Science Department
Farris Engineering Center
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131
Phone: (505) 277-3112 Fax: (505) 277-6927
Email: forrest@cs.unm.edu