A Microsphere-Supported Lipid Bilayer Platform for DNA Reactions on a Fluid Surface


We report a versatile microsphere-supported lipid bilayer system that can serve as a general-purpose platform for implementing DNA nanotechnologies on a fluid surface. To demonstrate our platform, we implemented both toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) and DNAzyme reactions, which are typically performed in solution and which are the cornerstone of DNA-based molecular logic and dynamic DNA nanotechnology, on the surface. We functionalized microspheres bearing supported lipid bilayers (μSLBs) with membrane-bound nucleic acid components. Using functionalized μSLBs, we developed TMSD and DNAzyme reactions by optimizing reaction conditions to reduce nonspecific interactions between DNA and phospholipids and to enhance bilayer stability. Additionally, the physical and optical properties of the bilayer were tuned via lipid composition and addition of fluorescently tagged lipids to create stable and multiplexable μSLBs that are easily read out by flow cytometry. Multiplexed TMSD reactions on μSLBs enabled the successful operation of a Dengue serotyping assay that correctly identified all 16 patterns of target sequences to demonstrate detection of DNA strands derived from the sequences of all four Dengue serotypes. The limit of detection for this assay was 3 nM. Furthermore, we demonstrated DNAzyme reactions on a fluid lipid surface, which benefit from free diffusion on the surface. This work provides the basis for expansion of both TMSD and DNAzyme based molecular reactions on supported lipid bilayers for use in molecular logic and DNA nanotechnology. As our system is multiplexable and results in fluid surfaces, it may be of use in compartmentalization and improved kinetics of molecular logic reactions and as a useful building block in a variety of DNA nanotechnology systems.

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces