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May 21, 2007

IPAM - Random and Dynamic Graphs and Networks (Days 4 & 5)

Two weeks ago, I was in Los Angeles for the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics' (IPAM, at UCLA) workshop on Random and Dynamic Graphs and Networks; this is the fourth and fifth entry.

Rather than my usual format of summarizing the things that got me thinking during the last few days, I'm going to go with a more free-form approach.

Thursday began with Jennifer Chayes (MSR) discussing some analytical work on adapting convergence-in-distribution proof techniques to ensembles of graphs. She introduced the cut-norm graph distance metric (useful on dense graphs; says that they have some results for sparse graphs, but that it's more difficult for those). The idea of graph distance seems to pop up in many different areas (including several I've been thinking of) and is closely related to the GRAPH ISOMORPHISM problem (which is not known to be NP-complete, but nor is it known to be in P). For many reasons, it would be really useful to be able to calculate in polynomial time the minimum edge-edit distance between two graphs; this would open up a lot of useful techniques based on transforming one graph into another.

Friday began with a talk by Jeannette Janssen (Dalhousie University) on a geometric preferential attachment model, which is basically a geometric random graph but where nodes have a sphere of attraction (for new edges) that has volume proportional to the node's in-degree. She showed some very nice mathematical results on this model. I wonder if this idea could be generalized to arbitrary manifolds (with a distance metric on them) and attachment kernels. That is, imagine that our complex network has actually imbedded on some complicated manifold and the attachment is based on some function of the distance on that manifold between the two nodes. The trick would be then to infer both the structure of the manifold and the attachment function from real data. Of course, without some constraints on both features, it would be easy to construct an arbitrary pair (manifold and kernel) that would give you exactly the network you observed. Is it sufficient to get meaningful results that both should be relatively smooth (continuous, differentiable, etc.)?

Jeannette's talk was followed by Filippo Menczer's talk on mining traffic data from the Internet2/Abilene network. The data set was based on daily dumps of end-to-end communications (packet headers with client and server IDs anonymized) and looked at a variety of behaviors of this traffic. He used this data to construct interaction graphs betwen clients and servers, clients and applications (e.g., "web"), and a few other things. The analysis seems relatively preliminary in the sense that there are a lot of data issues that are lurking in the background (things like aggregated traffic from proxies, aliasing and masking effects, etc.) that make it difficult to translate conclusions about the traffic into conclusions about real individual users. But, fascinating stuff, and I'm looking forward to seeing what else comes out of that data.

The last full talk I saw was by Raissa D'Souza on competition-induced preferential attachment, and a little bit at the end on dynamic geometric graphs and packet routing on them. I've seen the technical content of the preferential attachment talk before, but it was good to have the reminder that power-law distributions are not necessarily the only game in town for heavy-tailed distributions, and that even though the traditional preferential attachment mechanism may not be a good model of the way real growing networks change, it may be that another mechanism that better models the real world can look like preferential attachment. This ties back to Sidney Redner's comment a couple of days before about the citation network: why does the network look like one grown by preferential attachment, when we know that's not how individual authors choose citations?

posted May 21, 2007 11:38 AM in Scientifically Speaking | permalink


I'm waiting*_*

Posted by: succc at May 17, 2007 12:18 AM

I didn't get to it that night (unsurprisingly, really), and I've been swamped this week with other things. I really, really, really plan to finish this entry before the NetSci conference starts next Tuesday, since I'd like to write about those talks, too.

Posted by: Aaron at May 18, 2007 01:35 AM

Thank you very much for your nice share, and that help us learning the original ideas and the focuses of this field. I'll keep on listening:)

Posted by: succc at May 19, 2007 05:44 AM

Sadly, I didn't go to the IPAM conference even though I'm local. I had way too many things going on --- I'm trying to finish multiple papers and my (non-academic) book just came out. Anyway, we'll talk at Snowbird. (I should have though to ask if you'd be at IPAM after I realized I wouldn't be able to make it over to Westwood. I had my head up my butt because of the other things going on.)

I had a nice conversation with Lada Adamic today. (She's a fellow Caltech alum, so she was in town for reunion weekend. We're everywhere.) So I did spend some time today thinking about networks.

Posted by: Mason at May 20, 2007 01:29 AM